concept credit - Geraldine Parker Kaitao Middle School Rotorua
He aha te mea nui? He Aha te mea nui o te ao? Maku e ki atu He Tangata, He Tangata, He Tangata
What is the most important thing? What is the most important thing in the world? I will say to you It is people, It is people, It is people
As well as the lovely Wordle of key library phrases and concepts from the librarian at Kaitiao Middle School in Rotorua, I thought these extracts from the glossary of Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongrewa, [the repository for precious things] aka Te Papa, offering summaries and definitions of key Maori concepts, and their potential application to Museum practice in NZ, and internationally for that matter, was worth sharing as a contribution to Te wiki o te reo Maori.
There are also some excellent references when appropriate.
Source - Te Papa - Glossary
Iwi – tribe, a number of related hapū make up an iwi. The iwi were the largest politico-economic units in Māori society and would have defined territorial boundaries. Belonging to an iwi is defined generally through whakapapa from an important tipuna (ancestor). The basic responsibility of the iwi was to protect the interests of whānau, hapū and kin. Today, iwi are actively involved in the social, cultural and economic development of its people. The word iwi means ‘bone’. See also He Hinātore ki te Ao Māori: A Glimpse into the Māori World - Māori Perspectives on Justice published by the Ministry of Justice, Wellington, 2001.
Kaiārahi – leader, guide.
Kaitiaki Māori – iwi caretaker/guardian, Māori guardian/custodian. Māori museum staff are not automatically kaitiaki Māori – the authority and responsibility are negotiated through consultation.
Kaitiakitanga – the protection and preservation of the gifts of our ancestors for future generations, most commonly defined as guardianship, but is also regarded in a wider sense as care and management of all resources - an expression of the responsibility of iwi and hapū to protect and care for taonga for future generations. Many also see it as an expression of rangatiratanga – ‘rangatiratanga is the authority for kaitiakitanga to be exercised’
(Merata Kawharu, Kaitiakitanga: A Māori Anthropological Perspective of the Māori Socio-environmental Ethic of Resource Management, The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 110, No. 4, 2000). See also M. Marsden and T. A. Henare, Kaitiakitanga – A Definitive Introduction to the Holistic World View of the Māori, November 1992.
Karakia – prayer, incantation, spiritual acknowledgement.
Kaumātua – respected elder.
Kaupapa – purpose, theme, subject. ‘The term kaupapa Māori has been used to describe traditional Māori ways of doing, being, and thinking, encapsulated in the Māori world-view or cosmology.’ (Ella Henry, The Challenge of Preserving Indigenous Knowledge, LIANZA Conference 2001) [PDF]
Kawa – protocol, the way of doing certain things, agreed procedures. Kawa differs from tribe to tribe and has been passed down from generation to generation.
Kōmiti Māori – a Māori advisory or liaison committee.
Kōiwi tangata – skeletal human remains. Such remains are not regarded as collection items in New Zealand.
Kura Kaupapa Māori – Māori school run within a Māori framework and using te rēo Māori as the primary form of communication.
Manaakitanga – support and care – the looking after of people, especially guests (a core value of Māori culture).
Mana whenua – the local iwi and hapū who are recognised as holding authority in a particular region; status derived through ownership links with land.
Mātauranga Māori – traditional and customary knowledge systems and Māori world view, ‘that bank of information built up by generations of tipuna Māori upon which their survival was based…a way of considering issues from a Māori cultural viewpoint’
(policy paper for Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa). See David Williams’ report for the Waitangi Tribunal, Mātauranga Māori and Taonga, WAI 262 1997.
Mihi – a formal greeting (noun and verb), a way for people to introduce themselves and where they come from.
Rohe – area, territory or boundary – usually related to the geographic reach of a tribe.
Rūnanga – Māori tribal organisation/authority.
Tangata whenua – those who belong to the land by right of first discovery, indigenous people, the people of the land, locals.
Taonga – treasure, property – guaranteed by Article 2 of the Māori language version of the Treaty of Waitangi. Includes art objects and artefacts as well as te reo Māori and the treasures of the forests and fisheries. See Hirini Moko Mead, The Nature of Taonga and Sydney M Mead (ed), Te Māori: Māori Art from New Zealand Collections New York, Harry N Abrams Inc and the American Federation of Arts, 1984.
Tapu – sacred or forbidden, closely linked with mana. See Sidney Moko Ngā Taonga Tuku Iho o te Māori: Customary Concepts of the MāorMead (ed), i, 2ed, Dept of Māori Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, 1984. Also He Hīnātore ki te Ao Māori – A Glimpse Into the Māori World, Ministry of Justice, 2001.
Tikanga Māori – rules or customs handed down within a hapū or iwi. Tikanga changes or evolves to meet new circumstances and situations eg. in museums, galleries and schools. See also Cleave Barlow, Tikanga Whakaaro: Key Concepts in Māori Culture Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1991; Hirini Moko Mead,The Nature of Tikanga Maori, Ngā Ahuatanga o Te Tikanga Māori:11-13 August 2000); Māori Custom and Values in New Zealand Law, [PDF]New Zealand Law Commission Study Report 9, March 2002.
Tino Rangatiratanga – Sovereignty, the right for self-determination. See Ranginui Walker ‘Māori Sovereignty: The Māori Perspective‘ in Hineani Melbourne, Māori Sovereignty: The Māori Perspective, Hodder Moa Beckett Publishers Ltd, Auckland, 1995; Mason Durie, Te Mana, Kawanatanga: Politics of Māori Self Determination, Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1998.
Wānanga – a higher level meeting, building on prior knowledge and understanding and working to its own framework. Te Whare Wānanga is the term for Māori universities (formerly houses of learning). See also hui.
Whakapapa – the principal of kinship, genealogy, lineage. Whakapapa defines the individual and kin group(s) and the relationships between them; cultural identity. Generally, Māori recognised kin groups such as whānau (family), hapū (sub-tribe), iwi (tribe) and waka (canoes). The relationship that Māori have to the whenua (land) is also based on whakapapa. See also Michael Shirres, Te Tangata: The Human Person, Accent Publications, Auckland, 1997; Cleave Barlow, Tikanga Whakaaro: Key Concepts in Māori Culture, Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1991.
Whakataukī – proverb. See Neil Grove and Hirini Moko Mead, Ngā pēpeha a ngā tīpuna – The sayings of the ancestors, Victoria University Press, Wellington 2001.
Whānau - Family, the key building block and the basic unit of Māori society. The whānau could consist of up to three or four generations living together. The word whānau means ‘to give birth’. See also Joan Metge, New Growth From Old: The Whānau in the Modern World, Victoria University Press, Wellington, 1995.
Whanaungatanga - relationships, kinship, a close relationship engendered between members of the whānau as a result of working together.
Note on WorldCat
Some of the inline links go to a WorldCat page. This is a global index of library holdings. If it can't resolve your country, it will ask you to supply it. This will then give you a list of local contributing libraries.